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According to the First Meditation , the standard of truth is self-evidence of clear and distinct ideas.
However, Descartes questions the correspondence of these ideas to reality. He answers that he believes that two plus two equals four.
Thus, you will never find in all nature two identical objects; in the natural order, therefore, two and two can never make four, for, to attain that result, we must combine units that are exactly alike, and you know that it is impossible to find two leaves alike on the same tree, or two identical individuals in the same species of tree.
That axiom of your numeration, false in visible nature, is false likewise in the invisible universe of your abstractions, where the same variety is found in your ideas, which are the objects of the visible world extended by their interrelations; indeed, the differences are more striking there than elsewhere.
Victor Hugo used this phrase in His purpose is not ideological, however. Instead, he proposes that it is the free will to choose or reject the logical as well as the illogical that makes mankind human.
The idea seems to have been significant to Russian literature and culture. Ivan Turgenev wrote in Prayer , one of his Poems in Prose "Whatever a man prays for, he prays for a miracle.
Every prayer reduces itself to this: Great God, grant that twice two be not four. The Soviet Union began its first five-year economic plan in Its goals were ambitious from the start, seeking the immediate transformation of the USSR into an industrial nation.
The consequences for underperformance during the plan were severe; managers who admitted missing their targets, even as those targets were revised upward, could be charged with the crime of ' wrecking '.
Stalin declared the plan a success at the beginning of , noting the creation of several heavy industries.
George Orwell had used this concept before publishing Nineteen Eighty-Four in During his career at the BBC , he became familiar with the methods of Nazi propaganda.
Nazi theory indeed specifically denies that such a thing as "the truth" exists. The implied objective of this line of thought is a nightmare world in which the Leader, or some ruling clique, controls not only the future but the past.
This prospect frightens me much more than bombs. In the view of most of Orwell's biographers, [ citation needed ] the main source for this was Assignment in Utopia by Eugene Lyons , an account of his time in the Soviet Union.
However, Orwell spoke of the Nazis , so he may have been making reference to the Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring , who once, in a debatably hyperbolic display of loyalty to Adolf Hitler , declared, "If the Führer wants it, two and two makes five!
In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it. It was inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality, was tacitly denied by their philosophy.
The heresy of heresies was common sense. And what was terrifying was not that they would kill you for thinking otherwise, but that they might be right.
For, after all, how do we know that two and two make four? Or that the force of gravity works? Or that the past is unchangeable?
In presidential debates prior to the Iranian presidential elections , reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi accused his interlocutor, president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , of being illogical and said: Media critic Andrew Keen uses the phrase in his critique of Wikipedia's policy to let anyone edit.
He believes, along with Marshall Poe , that this leads to an encyclopedia of common knowledge , not expert knowledge. He believes the " wisdom of the crowd " will distort truth.
Because it has to do with God and real life of people Some characterized Spadaro as alleging that one could act counter to the doctrine of the Catholic church if they felt that God allowed them to do so, in spite of any moral of theological contradictions encountered.
Others have defended him, claiming that he was merely referring to the Catholic view that God will never be able to be perfectly comprehended by human reason alone.
In the novel, Mottram, during his catechesis as he disinterestedly prepares to enter the Catholic church to marry another main character, makes no effort to rationally ascertain any aspect of the faith, attributing all contradictions to his sinfulness.
In Ayn Rand 's Atlas Shrugged ,  the hero John Galt posits that "the noblest act you have ever performed is the act of your mind in the process of grasping that two and two make four".
Popular English alternative rock band Radiohead used the slogan as the title for the opening track on their 6th studio album Hail to the Thief In the Star Trek: During the episode, the Cardassian officer tries to coerce Picard to admit seeing five lights when in fact there were only four.
Picard valiantly sticks to reality. In metropolitan cities such as Karachi and Hyderabad , the MQM another left-wing party with the support of Muhajirs has a considerable vote bank and support.
In , after the public elections, the new government decided to restore the structure of Divisions of all provinces. As a consequence, the five divisions of Sindh were restored — namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas and Larkana with their respective districts.
Karachi district has been de-merged into its five original constituent districts: Recently Korangi has been upgraded to the status of sixth district of Karachi.
These six districts form the Karachi Division now. Sindh has the second largest economy in Pakistan.
A study commissioned by Pakistan Ministry of Planning found that urban Sindh and northern Punjab province are the most prosperous regions in Pakistan.
Performance wise, its best sector is the manufacturing sector, where its share has ranged from Endowed with coastal access, Sindh is a major centre of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance centred in Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus.
Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and other goods. Sindh is Pakistan's most natural gas producing province.
Agriculture is very important in Sindh with cotton , rice , wheat , sugar cane , dates , bananas , and mangoes as the most important crops.
The largest and finer quality of rice is produced in Larkano district. The following is a chart of the education market of Sindh estimated by the government in The rich culture, art and architectural landscape of Sindh have fascinated historians.
The culture, folktales, art and music of Sindh form a mosaic of human history. The traditions of Sindhi craftwork reflect the cumulative influence of years of invaders and settlers, whose modes of art were eventually assimilated into the culture.
The elegant floral and geometrical designs that decorate everyday objects —whether of clay, metal, wood, stone or fabric— can be traced to Muslim influence.
Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for ajraks , pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles and silk cloths which, in design and finish, are matchless.
The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth soosi , camel fittings, metalwork, lacquered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery.
Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and khes.
Other popular crafts include the earthenware of Johi, the metal vessels of Shikarpur, the ralli quilt , embroidery and leather articles of Tharparkar, and the lacquered work of Kandhkot.
Prehistoric finds from archaeological sites like Mohenjo-daro , engravings in graveyards, and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs have provided ample evidence of the people's literary and musical traditions.
Painting and calligraphy have developed in recent times. Some young trained men have taken up commercial art. Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft that has evolved over the centuries.
Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala , a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala's artisans manufacture high-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery.
Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand weaved textiles including khadi , susi , and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala's handicraft.
SMEDA is publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used.
Sindh is known the world over for its handicrafts and arts. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T.
Posten an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared with exquisite specimens of China.
Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel charkha and treadle pai-chah in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined.
The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woollens and linens of the age. The ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization.
The colour blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East.
The ajrak is a mark of respect when it is given to an honoured guest or friend. In Sindh, it is most commonly given as a gift at Eid, at weddings, or on other special occasions like a homecoming.
The ralli also known as rilli, rehli, rallee, gindi or other names , or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture.
Most Sindhi homes have many rallis—one for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. The ralli is made with small pieces of cloth of geometrical shapes sewn together to create intricate designs.
They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket and are often given as gifts to friends and guests. They provide training to women artisans in the interior of Sindh so they get a source of income.
They promote their products under the name of "Crafts Forever". Many women in rural Sindh are skilled in the production of caps.
Sindhi caps are manufactured commercially on a small scale at New Saeedabad and Hala New. These are in demand with visitors from Karachi and other places; however, these manufacturing units have a limited production capacity.
Sindhi people began celebrating Sindhi Topi Day on December 6, , to preserve the historical culture of Sindh by wearing Ajrak and Sindhi topi.
Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province; its numerous mausoleums include the ancient Shahbaz Qalander mausoleum.
Ranikot Fort , one of the largest forts in the world. West bank of the River Indus. National Museum of Pakistan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Sind disambiguation. Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — List of most populous cities in Pakistan and List of cities in Sindh.
List of districts of Pakistan. Places of historical interest in Sindh. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 26 November Consulate General of Russia.
Retrieved 29 May Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World. Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 16 October Are we to live or perish forever?
Ikram 1 January Indian Muslims and partition of India. Retrieved 23 December Retrieved September 6, The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture.
A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 11 December Social Philosophy and Traditions.
Archived from the original on Literary Conference on Soomra Period in Sindh. Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 17 July Ancient and Modern, Routledge, London 2 volumes Historical Overview of Climate Change Science".
Retrieved 24 June Renaissance to revolution, — by Jeremy Black p. Retrieved 27 January Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work".
Archived from the original on 11 April Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination — M.
Reda Bhacker — Google Books. Eugene Ehrlich , Nil Desperandum: Personal observations on Sindh: Journal of South Asian Studies , State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security.
Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Ansari 31 January Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, — Malik 3 June Islam, Nationalism and the West: Issues of Identity in Pakistan.
Political Processes, Conflicts and Crises. Retrieved 15 December The Making of Exile: Sindhi Hindus and the Partition of India. How the Baloch came to Sindh".
Sindhi Adabi Board Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Where a Hindu fasts and a Muslim does not slaughter cows". Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 3 November Sindhi Nationalism and Electoral Politics".
Commissioner system may be revived today". Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics. Archived from the original on July 20, Sindh Exhibit provides peek into province's rich culture — The Express Tribune".
Find more about Sindh at Wikipedia's sister projects. Province of Sindh topics. Sindh cricket team Malakhra. Provinces and administrative units of Pakistan.
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Location of Sindh in Pakistan. Self-governing Province subject to the Federal government. This article contains Sindhi text , written from right to left with some letters joined.
Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters or other symbols instead of Sindhi script. This article contains Urdu text. Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters running left to right or other symbols instead of Urdu script.
Pakistan Census . This is a list of each city's urban populations and does not indicate total district populations.